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Second Part: Grace (qq. 12–85)

Lord’s Day 5

12. Since, then, by the righteous judgment of God we deserve temporal and eternal pun- ishment, how may we escape this punishment and be again received into favour?

God wills that His justice be satisfied;1 therefore, we must make full satisfaction to that justice, either by ourselves or by another.2

1 Ex 20:5, 23:7; Rom 2:1-11; 2 Isa 53:11; Rom 8:3-4

13. Can we ourselves make this satisfaction?

Certainly not; on the contrary, we daily increase our guilt.1

1 Job 9:2-3, 15:15-16; Ps 130:3; Mt 6:12, 16:26; Rom 2:4-5

14. Can any mere creature make satisfaction for us?

None; for first, God will not punish any other creature for the sin which man committed;1 and further, no mere creature can sustain the burden of God’s eternal wrath against sin and redeem others from it.2

1 Ezek 18:4, 20; Heb 2:14-18; 2 Ps 130:3; Nah 1:6

15. What kind of mediator and redeemer, then, must we seek? One who is a true1 and righteous man,2 and yet more powerful than all creatures, that is, one who is also true God.3

1 1 Cor 15:21-22, 25-26; Heb 2:17; 2 Isa 53:11; Jer 13:16; 2 Cor 5:21; Heb 7:26; 3 Isa 7:14, 9:6; Jer 23:6; Jn 1:1; Rom 8:3-4; Heb 7:15-16

Lord’s Day 6

16. Why must He be a true and righteous man?

Because the justice of God requires that the same human nature which has sinned should make satisfaction for sin;1 but one who is himself a sinner cannot satisfy for others.2

1 Rom 5:12, 15; 1 Cor 15:21; Heb 2:14-16; 2 Isa 53:3-5; Heb 7:26-27; 1 Pt 3:18

17. Why must He also be true God? That by the power of His Godhead1 He might bear in His manhood the burden of God’s wrath,2 and so obtain for3 and restore to us righteousness and life.4

1 Isa 9:5; 2 Dt 4:24; Isa 53:8; Ps 130:3; Nah 1:6; Acts 2:24; 3 Jn 3:16; Acts 20:28; 4Isa 53:5, 11; 2 Cor 5:21; 1 Jn 1:2

18. But who now is that Mediator, who in one person is true God and also a true and righteous man?

Our Lord Jesus Christ,1 who is freely given unto us for complete redemption and righteousness. 2

1 Mt 1:21-23; Lk 2:11; 1 Tim 2:5, 3:16; 2 Acts 4:12; 1 Cor 1:30

19. From where do you know this?

From the Holy Gospel, which God Himself first revealed in Paradise,1 afterwards proclaimed by the holy patriarchs2 and prophets,3 and foreshadowed by the sacrifices and other ceremonies of the law,4 and finally fulfilled by His well-beloved Son.5

1 Gen 3:15; 2 Gen 12:3, 22:18, 49:10-11; 3 Isa 53; Jer 23:5-6; Mic 7:18-20; Acts 3:22-24, 10:43; Rom 1:2; Heb 1:1; 4 Lev 1:7; Jn 5:46; Heb 10:1-10; 5 Rom 10:4; Gal 4:4-5; Col 2:17; Heb 10:1

Lord’s Day 7

20. Are all men, then, saved by Christ as they have perished in Adam?

No, only those who by true faith are ingrafted into Him and receive all His benefits.1

1 Ps 2:12; Mt 7:14; Jn 1:12-13, 3:16, 18, 36; Rom. 11:16-21; 1 Cor 15:22; Heb 4:2-3, 10:39

21. What is true faith?

True faith is not only a sure knowledge whereby I hold for truth all that God has revealed to us in His Word,1 but also a hearty trust,2 which the Holy Spirit3 works in me by the Gospel,4 that not only to others, but to me also,5 forgiveness of sins, everlasting righteousness, and salvation are freely given by God,6 merely of grace, only for the sake of Christ’s merits.7

1 Jn 17:3, 17; Heb 11:1-3; Jas 1:6, 2:19; 2 Rom 4:16-21, 5:1, 10:10; Heb 4:16; 3 2 Cor 4:13; Php 1:19, 29; 4 Acts 16:4; Rom 1:16, 10:17; 1 Cor 1:21; 5 Gal 2:20; 6 Rom. 1:17; Heb 10:10, 11:1-2; 7 Acts 10:43; Rom 3:20-26; Gal 2:16; Eph 2:7-10

22. What, then, is necessary for a Christian to believe?

All that is promised us in the Gospel,1 which the articles of our catholic, undoubted Christian faith teach us in summary.

1 Mt 28:19-20; Jn 20:30-31; 2 Tim 3:15; 2 Pt 1:21

The Apostles’ Creed

23. What are these articles?

I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth. And in Jesus Christ, His only begotten Son, our Lord: who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into hell; the third day He rose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from there He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, a holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting.

The Holy Trinity

Lord’s Day 8

24. How are these articles divided?

Into three parts: the first is of God the Father and our creation; the second, of God the Son and our redemption; the third, of God the Holy Spirit and our sanctification.1

1 1 1Pt1:2

25. Since there is but one Divine Being,1 why do you speak of three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit?

Because God has so revealed Himself in His Word,2 that these three distinct persons are the ne, true, eternal God.

1 Deut 6:4; Isa 44:6, 45:5; 1 Cor 8:4-6; 2 Gen 1:2-3; Ps 110:1; Isa 61:1, 63:8-10; Mt 3:16-17, 28:18-19; Lk 4:18; Jn 14:26, 15:26; 2 Cor 13:14; Gal 4:6; Tit 3:5-6

Of God the Father and Our Creation

Lord’s Day 9

26. What do you believe when you say: “I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth?”

That the eternal Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who of nothing made heaven and earth with all hat in them is,1 who likewise upholds, and governs the same by His eternal counsel and provi- dence,2 is for the sake of Christ, His Son, my God and my Father,3 in whom I so trust as to have no doubt that He will provide me with all things necessary for body and soul;4 and further, that whatever evil He sends upon me in this troubled life, He will turn to my good;5 for He is able to do it, being Almighty God,6 and willing also, being a faithful Father.7

1 Gen 1-2; Ex 20:11; Job 38-39; Ps 33:6; Isa 44:24; Acts 4:24, 14:15; Col 1:16; Heb 11:3; 2 Ps 104:2-5, 27-30, 115:3; Mt 6:30, 10:29-30; Acts 17:24-25; Eph 1:11; Heb 1:3; 3 Mt 6:8; Jn 1:12-13; Rom 8:15-16; Gal 4:4-7; Eph 1:5, 3:14-16; 4 Ps 55:22, 90:1-2; Mt 6:25-26; Lk 12:22-31; 5 Acts 17:27-28; Rom 8:28; 6 Gen 18:14; Rom 8:31-39, 10:12; 7 Num 23:19; Mt 6:32-33, 7:9-11

Providence

Lord’s Day 10

27. What do you understand by the providence of God?

The almighty, everywhere-present power of God,1 whereby, as it were by His hand, He still upholds heaven and earth with all creatures,2 and so governs them that herbs and grass, rain and drought,3 fruitful and barren years, meat and drink,4health and sickness,5 riches and poverty,6 indeed, all things come not by chance,7but by His fatherly hand.8

1 Jer 23:23-24; Acts 17:24-28; 2 Heb 1:3; 3 Jer 5:24; 4 Acts 14:15-17; 5 Jn 9:3; 6 Job 1:21; Ps 103:19; Prov 22:2; Rom 5:3-5; 7 Prov 16:33; 8 Mt 10:29; Eph 1:1

28. What does it profit us to know that God created, and by His providence upholds, all things?

That we may be patient in adversity,1 thankful in prosperity,2 and for what is future have good confidence in our faithful God and Father, that no creature shall separate us from His love,3 since all creatures are so in His hand, that without His will they cannot so much as move.4

1 Job 1:21-22; Ps 39:10; Rom 5:3; Jas 1:3; 2 Deut 8:10; 1 Thes 5:18; 3 Ps 55:22; Rom 5:3-5, 8:35, 38-39; 4 Job 1:12, 2:6; Ps 71:7; Prov 21:1; Acts 17:24-28; 2 Cor 1:10

Of God the Son and Our Redemption

His Name

Lord’s Day 11

29. Why is the Son of God called “Jesus,” that is, Saviour?

Because He saves us from all our sins,1 and because salvation is not to be sought or found in any other.2

1 Mt 1:21; Heb 7:25; 2 Isa 43:11; Lk 2:10-11; Jn 15:4-5; Acts 4:11-12; 1 Tim 2:5

30. Do those also believe in the only Saviour Jesus, who seek their salvation and welfare from “saints,” themselves, or anywhere else?

No; although they make their boast of Him, yet in their deeds they deny the only Saviour Jesus;1 for either Jesus is not a complete Saviour, or they who by true faith receive this Saviour, must have in Him all that is necessary to their salvation.2

1 1 Cor 1:12-13, 30-31; Gal 5:4; 2 Isa 9:7; Mt. 23:28; Jn 1:16; Col 1:19-20, 2:10; 1 Jn 1:7

His Title

Lord’s Day 12

31. Why is He called “Christ,” that is, Anointed?

Because He is ordained of God the Father and anointed with the Holy Spirit1 to be our chief Prophet and Teacher,2 who has fully revealed to us the secret counsel and will of God concerning our redemption;3 and our only High Priest,4 who by the one sacrifice of His body, has redeemed us,5 and ever lives to make intercession for us with the Father;6 and our eternal King,7 who gov- erns us by His Word and Spirit, and defends and preserves us in the redemption obtained for us.8

1 Ps 45:7 [Heb 1:9]; Isa 61:1 [Lk 3:21-22, 4:18]; 2 Deut 18:15 [Acts 3:22]; 3 Jn 1:18, 15:15; 4 Ps 110:4 [Heb 7:17, 21]; 5 Heb 9:12, 10:11-14; 6 Rom 5:9-10, 8:34; Heb 9:24; 1 Jn 2:1; 7 Zech 9:9 [Mt 21:5]; Lk 1:33; 8 Ps 2:6; Isa.61:1-2; Mt 28:18-20; Jn 10:28; 1 Pt 2:24; Rev 12:10-11, 19:16

32. But why are you called a Christian?

Because by faith I am a member of Christ1 and thus a partaker of His anointing,2 in order that I also may confess His Name,3 may present myself a living sacrifice of thankfulness to Him,4 and with a free conscience may fight against sin and the devil in this life,5 and hereafter in eternity reign with Him over all creatures.6

1 Acts 11:26; 1 Cor 12:12-27; 1 Jn 2:20, 27; 2 Joel 2:28 [Acts 2:17]; 1 Jn 2:27; 3 Mk 8:38, 10:32; Rom 10:9-10; Heb 13:15; 4 Rom 12:1; 1 Pt 2:5, 9; Rev 1:6, 5:8, 10; 5 Gal 5:16-17; Eph 6:11; 1 Tim 1:18-19; 6 Mt 25:34; Eph 6:12; 2 Tim 2:12; Rev 3:21

contd.

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